Dial, LXXV, 1923, p. 483.
“A person (especially in ancient times) who is not a believer in any of the chief religions of the world, especially not in one’s own religion; (Used especially of the ancient Greek and Romans) a person who believes in many gods. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture, New Edition, 1998. From Latin, country dweller, from pagus country district; akin to pangere to fix; Heathen; an irreligious person.” Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary. “…A non-Christian; a follower of a polytheistic or pantheistic religion.” The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 1993.
In Encounters 1923. All quotations are from Elizabeth Bowen, The Collected Stories, Penguin, 1980.
“I’m rather a cult, they appreciate my Titian hair.” p. 23.
“…how ever can one, teaching at a high school? Miss Peterson would-“ p. 23, my emphasis.
“Miss Murcheson stopped at the corner of the High street…” p. 21, my emphasis.
“She counted out her money pouring a little stream of coppers from her purse into the pal of her hand.”
“(…), or the male cone of a gymnosperm.” The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, p. 2276, hereafter, Oxord.
The Commedia dell’Arte was popular from the 16th to the 18th century and its repertoire relied upon improvisation. Harlequin is a mischievous and simpleminded character “who is set curious tasks, tries his best but never fully succeeds.” See Garr-Gom, p. 66.
B. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), Brewer’s Concise Dictionary of Phrase & Fable, Cassell, London, 1992, p. 481. Hereafter Brewers.
“…her display of chequered moirette petticoat…” p. 21.
Brewer’s, p. 481.
“’How tight-laced you are, poor Columbines,’ she said…” p. 22.
“…forgetting all confusion she was conscious of her wings. She paused again to hitch up the bundle of exercise books slithering down beneath her elbow…” p. 21.
“She…could not resist the invitation of the empty house…” p. 22
Who has introduced a dictionary of quotations Miss Murcheson intends to forbid. p. 23.
The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 4, 15th Edition, 1995, p. 186.
de Vries, p. 393.
Walker, p. 451.
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Ovidius, Metamorphoses, V, 342-551. Pluto raped Persephone while she was having fun with her young friends on a meadow picking daffodils, and where smelling a wonderful lilly, she fell fast asleep. After a long period of vain efforts, Demeter, Persephone’s mother, manages to have her daughter restored to her. Unwilling to part with her, Hades (also called Pluto) offered Persephone one, three or seven pomegranate seeds, which she ate. By doing so, she was bound to return to Hades every year and spend three months in his company.
p. 27. On the motive of eating food in the realm of the dead, Mircea Eliade says “Il s’agit d’un thème mythique largement répendu: celui qui goûte les mets de l’autre-monde, ne peut plus revenir parmi les vivants.” Eliade 304, footnote.
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 371, Ovidius, Metamorphoses, V, 532-538..
In The Broadsheet Press, on May.
“…red satin dress cut low, she attacked the silence with loud laughter…” p. 418, opening paragraph.
“Come in! Her aunt cried in indignation. She would die of a chill, childless, in fact unwedded; the Castle would have to be sold and where they would all be?” p. 420.
“A degree of terror was agreeable to his vanity: by express wish he had occupied haunted rooms. (…) Wandering as it were among the apples and the amphoras of an art school, he had blundered in the life room: woman revolved gravely...” p. 413.
“…some wet peonies glistened” p. 420. In Ireland peonies bloom in July.
A chance that had been offered to Valeria at “Easter,” (p. 419); but she was off then. The Motive of Easter evokes death and rebirth, Bowen’s resurrection myth, be it Christian or pagan. Between the lines there also seems to be an allusion to the parable of the Ten Bridesmaids (“The kingdom of heaven shall be compared to ten maidens who took their lamps and went to meet the bridegroom…” Matt.25:1-12.) The story seems to parody the parable.
Mercury, Mars, and Venus, see infra.
"’Perhaps since then they have been to Greece, or Malta?’
‘That would be the Mediterranean fleet’ said Mr Rossiter.
They were sorry to think of anything out in the rain tonight.
‘The decks must be streaming,’ said Miss Carbine.
Then Valeria, exclaiming. ‘Please excuse me!’ pushed her chair in and ran from the room.
‘She is impulsive,’ explained Miss Treye. Have you been to Malta Mr Alban?’” p. 420.
There is a lurking innuendo; the “streaming deck” is, of course, “a wet deck,” that is “a prostitute who copulates with one man immediately after another” (Holder, p. 400).
The British equivanent of Saint Patric. St. Alban was Britain’s first martyr. “His feast is on 22 June, although the Church of England Keeps the 17 June.” Brewer’s 17.
Rob Roy just like Robert the Devil (see next note) are of Gaelic, not of English ascendancy.
Robert the Devil or Le Diable (?-1035), father to William the Conqueror, made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He became a subject of tale and romance. A Norman tradition is that his wandering ghost will not be allowed to test till the day of judgement.. Brewers, 871.
Going back up the course of history from England to Malta, to Greece (i.e. Rhodes), the destroyer’s route follows that of the Knights Hospitaliers or knights of Saint John, an order that started by offering hospitality for pilgrims but which soon became predominantly military. The Holy City, where Christianity worked the miracle of turning pilgrimages into crusades, was their first headquarter.
p. 418: Although it is now “a peaceful residence” with “French windows” and “invasions from the water would be henceforth (…) perhaps amorous” (c.f. Venus), Valeria’s castle was originally a tower with a keep (c.f. Mars). where, later “wings had been added” (c.f. Mercury, the winged god).
C.F. value: that amount of a commodity, medium of exchange, etc. considered an equivalent for something else.” Oxford.
“The place was familiar to him” p. 423. The passage is pregnant with innuendoes (“’It’s high time the girl was married, …she is a fine oar,’ said Mr Rossiter Wisely. ‘ It’s a pity you don’t want a wife.’”) and homosexual hints (“’If that goes on…they (the sailors) ’ll fire one of their guns at us.’ Oh, no. Why? Said Alban. He buttoned up, however, the collar of his mackintosh.” p. 423) It also echoes the boathouse episode in Forster’s Maurice. Bowen, who knew Foster, might have read the manuscript.
“You’d be the better for a wife, d’you see, a young fellow like you. She’s got a nice income.” p. 423.
The surname Cuffe derives from Old English “cuffa,» or from Middle English “ cuffe,” meaning “mitten.” (Reany and Wilson, 120).
In Look at All Those Roses, Gollancz, 1941.
“…a spell-bound afternoon with no shadows,” p. 514.
A couple that “looked forward to nothing with particular pleasure,” p. 512.
“…– her idea of love was adhesiveness.” p. 515.
“He had no illusions about life in the country: life without people was absolutely impossible. What would he and she do with nobody to talk to but eachother? Already, they had not spoken for two hours.” p. 513.
He is constantly after taxies or trains. “I must do something at once. We haven’t got all night; I have to be back in London.” p. 515 . “They had to be back by eight for Edward, who was a writer, to finish and post an article.” p. 512. “We’ll take this taxi on and pick up a train. Come on, Lou, come on! We don’t want to miss those people. And we’ve got to get that stuff out of the car.” p. 520.
”The car, surely, Edward would not abandon.” p. 519.
Room, p. 164, 316 and 306.
You’ve no idea what they said when they heard where I had parked you.” (my emphasis) p. 520.
“The occupying inner life of this person was not for an instant suspended by their presence… She must have lost contact with the outer world completely.” p. 514.
The country is bare of hills and the sun absent from” the vacant sky” (513). The house is stripped of sharp or piercing items. Also “She (Josephine) lay with eyes shut and forehead contracted, for overhead hung the dreaded space of the sky.” p. 518.
Represented by Josephine’s father, who is a criminal, and Lou’s lover, a rival to Josephine who would like Lou to stay with her. Moreover, not only can Josephine not stand sunlight, but also the place seems to ban any item evoking male symbolism. The only exception is a canary, most likely standing for what Josephine deprived Edward of by provoking the breakdown of his car…
“Originally a Thracian moon goddess, she was absorbed as a Titan by the Greeks… She has the power of magic and sorcery and bestows wealth and wisdom. Hecate forms a trinity with Diana (Artemis) and Lucina (Selene)…She also forms a triad with Demeter and Persephone. (ANN, 179).
Bell, p. 164. A chthonic figure, Hecate shares power over the dead with Demeter and Persephone “Hecate has power over disembodied souls… Plutarch discusses the double release of the soul. First, the soul is separated from the body in the realm of Demeter – that is on earth; then the soul is separated from the mind in the realm of Persephone – on the Moon.” Johnston, p. 36.
Johnston, Chapter III, p. 29-38.
Grimal, p. 236, b; Graves, 117b, p. 80. Gantz p. 26-7.
Tauris means “the country of bulls.” Which accounts for the two “Swiss cow-bells, that hung on loops of string by the door” (514) and are wore by the two women in the house and garden so as to let the other know where each is (518).
See Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris.
Gantz, 582-585. The function of slaying foreigners endows Hecate the Younger with the title “Enodia,” an adjective meaning “the one of the roadways,” used also as a substantive name for the classical Hecate. The same title is also used for Persephone and Artemis, indicating again dark, perhaps threatening marks in the goddesses’ nature. “While “Enodia” most frequently is used either with Hecate’s name or in circumstances where it clearly replaces “Hecate,” other goddesses came to use it, notably Artemis, Selene and Persephone…” (Johnston, 24) See also L. Robert, “La déesse Enodia en Thessalie” in Hellenica XI-XII, 1960, p. 588-599.
“An Orphic tradition calls [Hecate] the daughter of Demeter (fr. 41 Kern), and so too Kallimachos. This (…) might make Hecate seem almost a doublet of Persephone. By Contrast, Pausanias claims that the Echoiai equated Hecate with the Iphimede (i.e. Iphigenia) rescued by Artemis 1.43.1) …Stesichoros followed Hesiod in equating Iphigenia with Hecate (215 PMG) thus strengthening the likelihood that Pausanias is here correct.” Gantz, I, pp. 26-27).
The Greek styled house, Mrs Mather/Demeter the earth goddess confesses, “was a farm (…) an unlucky farm.”
“Her maid had a bike bicycle, but had ridden home on it” p. 514. “Servants seem to find that the place is lonely… ” p. 518 “’When does your servant come back?’ ‘Tomorrow morning. Sometimes our servants never come back.” p. 519
Bowen was a reader of Frazer and Freud and Lacan…
A term coined by Andrew Von Hendy (see bibliography). Still “allusive technique” has been used to mean the same as “literary allusion” by Gerald M.Sweeney in Melvilles Use of Classical Mythology (Amsterdam: Rhodopi N.V.1975).